Anderson, B. S., Covin, J. G., & Slevin, D. P. (2009). Understanding the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and strategic learning capability: an empirical investigation. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 3(3), 218-240.Covin, J. G., & Wales, W. J. (2018, in press). Crafting high-impact entrepreneurial orientation research: Some suggested guidelines. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice.Covin, J. G., & Wales, W. J. (2012). The Measurement of Entrepreneurial Orientation. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 36(4), 677-702.Miller, D. (2011). Miller (1983) Revisited: A Reflection on EO Research and Some Suggestions for the Future. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 35(5), 873-894.Wales, W. J. (2016). Entrepreneurial orientation: A review and synthesis of promising research directions. International Small Business Journal, 34, 3-15.
Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) is among the most important and established concepts within the field of entrepreneurship and domain of managerial inquiry. The central premise of EO is that an organization can be considered more (or less) entrepreneurial as a collective entity. The notion of firm-level entrepreneurship represents a clear demarcation from the well established tradition of investigating entrepreneurship as an individual-level phenomenon. The underlying motivation for the concept of EO is the need to theoretically separate firms based upon their entrepreneurial strategy-making processes and behaviors to facilitate scientific research into entrepreneurial phenomenon across organizations. As such, EO allows for distancing the intentions and attitudes of organizational members from the organization’s overall behavioral orientation towards entrepreneurship. EO posits that all organizations fall somewhere along a conceptual continuum ranging from conservative (the “low” end) to entrepreneurial (the “high” end). Where an organization places within this conceptual continuum depends upon the extent to which the organization’s strategy-making processes have produced a stable firm-level entrepreneurial behavioral pattern. EO research has provided managers with critical insights into how firms may effectively leverage entrepreneurial strategy-making processes and behaviors to achieve important organizational goals such as growth and renewal.
Wales, W. J. (2013). Entrepreneurial Orientation. In E. H. Kessler (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Management Theory (Vol. 1): Sage Publications.